The Saudi NOC was represented by Hani Al-Khalifa, President of the Produced Water Society’s Middle East Chapter and Panel Chair. Aramco’s water cut is increasing, but for now, they are still able to reinject all the water they produce. There are several multi-billion dollar projects in the works designed to add capacity to their water handling systems. On the OPEX side, Aramco spends between $.10 to $.25 per barrel in treating water. They, like the rest of the operating companies, have to adjust rapidly to changing forecasts from subsurface teams. In fact, finding a lingua franca between the subsurface and surface teams is a passion of Al Khalifa’s, and one can only assume that striking a common vernacular between teams might improve not just understanding, but operations as a whole.